stuffmomnevertoldyou:

31 Badass Women Born in March
Movers, shakers and women’s history-makers born this month.
xo, March babies!

stuffmomnevertoldyou:

31 Badass Women Born in March

Movers, shakers and women’s history-makers born this month.

xo, March babies!


Kick-ass women crime writers for Women’s History Month. These crime-fighting pioneers don’t fear a little murder and mayhem—they welcome it. 

Kick-ass women crime writers for Women’s History Month. These crime-fighting pioneers don’t fear a little murder and mayhem—they welcome it. 

(Source: ilovecharts, via kammartinez)

brookhavenlab:


Renate Chasman was probably thinking about new ways to revolutionize particle accelerators when this photo was taken.
She was only in her early 40s when she and her collaborator, Ken Green, changed the way science in their field was done. Their ingenious Chasman-Green lattice manipulated accelerated electrons to produce the brightest x-rays ever created up to that time.  Completed in the 1970s, their design was first used at Brookhaven’s National Synchrotron Light Source, and then went on to be incorporated into future synchrotron light source facilities all around the world.
Chasman was one of the few female accelerator physicists of her time, and she has an interesting story. She was born in Berlin in 1932 and moved with her family to Holland and then Sweden after the Nazis came to power. As a child in Sweden, she would sometimes travel the three miles to school on skis. She studied nuclear physics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, then went on to work at Columbia University and Yale University, and finally she came to Brookhaven National Lab, where she found an interest in accelerator technology and ultimately revolutionized the field.
Just a few years after her profound contribution to science, this renowned physicist passed away in 1977 at the tragically young age of 45, but her legacy of innovation continues here at the Lab. Brookhaven Women in Science offers a scholarship in Chasman’s name that has promoted the advancement of women in scientific and technical careers for 27 years.

brookhavenlab:

Renate Chasman was probably thinking about new ways to revolutionize particle accelerators when this photo was taken.

She was only in her early 40s when she and her collaborator, Ken Green, changed the way science in their field was done. Their ingenious Chasman-Green lattice manipulated accelerated electrons to produce the brightest x-rays ever created up to that time.  Completed in the 1970s, their design was first used at Brookhaven’s National Synchrotron Light Source, and then went on to be incorporated into future synchrotron light source facilities all around the world.

Chasman was one of the few female accelerator physicists of her time, and she has an interesting story. She was born in Berlin in 1932 and moved with her family to Holland and then Sweden after the Nazis came to power. As a child in Sweden, she would sometimes travel the three miles to school on skis. She studied nuclear physics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, then went on to work at Columbia University and Yale University, and finally she came to Brookhaven National Lab, where she found an interest in accelerator technology and ultimately revolutionized the field.

Just a few years after her profound contribution to science, this renowned physicist passed away in 1977 at the tragically young age of 45, but her legacy of innovation continues here at the Lab. Brookhaven Women in Science offers a scholarship in Chasman’s name that has promoted the advancement of women in scientific and technical careers for 27 years.

10 Things That Women Invented

At the end of the 20th century, only 10 percent of all patents were awarded to female inventors [source: Bedi]. When you compile a list of the most famous inventions of the past few centuries, few women will show up as the creators of those items. It’s not that women lack ingenuity or a creative spirit, though; it’s just that women have faced many hurdles in receiving credit for their ideas. Take the case of Sybilla Masters, a woman who lived in the American colonies. After observing Native American women, she came up with a new way to turn corn into cornmeal. She went to England to obtain a patent for her work, but laws at the time stipulated that women couldn’t own property, which included intellectual property like a patent. Such property was considered to be owned by the woman’s father or husband. In 1715, a patent for Sybilla Masters’ product was issued, but the name on the document is that of her husband, Thomas.

Such property laws prevented many women from acquiring patents for inventions several centuries ago. Women were also less likely to receive a technical education that would help them turn an ingenious idea into an actual product. Many women faced prejudice and ridicule when they sought help from men in actualizing their idea. And some women came up with ideas that would improve life in their households, only to see their inventions treated with scorn for being too domestic and thus unworthy of praise.

Mary Kies was the first American woman to earn a patent in her own name. In 1809, she developed a way of weaving straw into hats that was an economic boon for New England. By receiving that piece of paper with her name on it, Kies led the way for other female inventors to take credit for their ideas. In this article, we’ll salute 10 things invented by women.

Keep reading…

stuffmomnevertoldyou:

Women’s History Month fun continues with our homage to 50s housewives, and seminal book that spoke of a problem that “has no name.” Fittingly, “The Feminine Mystique” also turned 50 earlier this year.

The Atlantic interviewed Gail Collins about its significance:

The goal of being a full-time housewife made so much sense earlier because you didn’t have the option of going to college and becoming a brain surgeon. The idea that you could be running your own shop was incredibly empowering. Women who did this full-time were a critical economic factor in their household, as important as their husbands. They manufactured most of the things the family needed.

Later, women who devoted their lives to the domestic arts didn’t get the respect that the farm wife had gotten because they had no economic role. That’s when they came up with a vision of the “total” woman, the woman celebrated in women’s magazines, the middle-class woman, the moral compass. Men were in the marketplace and no longer had time to be moral compasses. This job was elevated emotionally but didn’t have any economic point, so there was a loss of power and respect in a country where the economic role is everything. Betty Friedan was born into this era, in which women still had all those issues, but being a housewife, which used to be exhausting, wasn’t all that hard anymore. Raising children was hard but only lasted for a short chunk of a woman’s life. Friedan wasn’t only a housewife—she was a freelance writer and had other roles. But her complaints about that one role, the power of her own rage and dissatisfaction seemed to resonate amazingly.

ikenbot:


Why Do Women Still Earn Less Than Men?
Imaged Above: August 26, 1970 Women’s Equality Day
By Laura Fitzpatrick
Last year’s tax returns may already be signed, sealed and delivered, but April 20 is the day the average American woman will finally finish earning her 2009 salary — at least, the one she would have received if she were a man. That’s because U.S. women still earned only 77 cents on the male dollar in 2008, according to the latest census statistics. (That number drops to 68% for African-American women and 58% for Latinas.) To highlight the need for change, since 1996 the National Committee on Pay Equity, an advocacy-group umbrella organization, has marked April 20 as Equal Pay Day. There are some signs of progress: the first bill Barack Obama signed into law as President targeted the U.S. pay gap, and the Senate is considering a bill that is meant to address underlying discrimination. But the question remains: Why has it taken so long? Nearly half a century after it became illegal to pay women less on the basis of their sex, why do American women still earn less than men?
The answer depends on whom you ask — and so does the size of the gap. Some say 77% is overly grim. One reason: it doesn’t account for individual differences between workers. Once you control for factors like education and experience, notes Francine Blau — who, along with fellow Cornell economist Lawrence Kahn, published a study on the 1998 wage gap — women’s earnings rise to 81% of men’s. Factor in occupation, industry and whether they belong to a union, and they jump to 91%. That’s partly because women tend to cluster in lower-paying fields. The most-educated swath of women, for example, gravitates toward the teaching and nursing fields. Men with comparable education become business executives, scientists, doctors and lawyers — jobs that pay significantly more.(Read about a new wave of women in Europe’s boardrooms.)
Still, workers don’t choose their industry in a vacuum. “Why do you think [male-dominated industries] are sex-segregated?” says Terry O’Neill, president of the National Organization for Women. “Very often women aren’t welcome there.” Real or perceived, discrimination in certain sectors could discourage women from seeking employment there. A dearth of role models might, in turn, influence the next generation of girls to gravitate toward lower-paying fields, creating an unfortunate cycle.
But industry doesn’t tell the whole story. Women earned less than men in all 20 industries and 25 occupation groups surveyed by the Census Bureau in 2007 — even in fields in which their numbers are overwhelming. Female secretaries, for instance, earn just 83.4% as much as male ones. And those who pick male-dominated fields earn less than men too: female truck drivers, for instance, earn just 76.5% of the weekly pay of their male counterparts. Perhaps the most compelling — and potentially damning — data of all to suggest that gender has an influence comes from a 2008 study in which University of Chicago sociologist Kristen Schilt and NYU economist Matthew Wiswall examined the wage trajectories of people who underwent a sex change. Their results: even when controlling for factors like education, men who transitioned to women earned, on average, 32% less after the surgery. Women who became men, on the other hand, earned 1.5% more.
Skeptics who deem the 77% estimate too optimistic also note that the figure only counts women working full-time (35 hours a week or more, for the full year) and doesn’t account for the fact that women are far more likely to take time off to start a family or work part-time while rearing one. Over a period of 15 years, according to a 2004 study by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR), a full 52% of women in the prime earning age range of 26 to 59 go through at least one full calendar year earning nothing at all, compared with just 16% of men. Those choices make a difference: over that span, female workers earn just 38% of what men make — making the wage gap twice as large as the census figure. (And despite the earnings premium that comes with greater education, women with bachelor’s degrees earn less over 15 years than men with a high school diploma or less, according to the IWPR study.)(Read 1982 cover story “How Long Till Equality?”)
Yet no matter how you interpret the numbers, there are a few stubborn percentage points that can’t be explained away. Economists and advocates alike speculate that these are the products of slippery factors like discrimination — conscious or not. A 2000 study, for instance, famously found that after symphony orchestras introduced blind auditions, requiring musicians to perform behind a screen, women became more likely to get the gig. “I think discrimination has declined,” says Cornell’s Blau. “But I’m not yet seeing or believing that it’s been completely eliminated.”
Ensuring an end to discrimination would benefit more than just women, as advocates who resist the characterization of equal pay as a zero-sum game are quick to point out. When Iowa instituted wage adjustments to combat pay discrimination, men accounted for 41% of the beneficiaries. And considering that nearly 40% of American mothers are the primary breadwinner in their households, America’s children would benefit as well. Women’s wages have increased just half a penny on the dollar for the past four decades. How much longer can it possibly take for equality to arrive?

ikenbot:

Why Do Women Still Earn Less Than Men?

Imaged Above: August 26, 1970 Women’s Equality Day

By Laura Fitzpatrick

Last year’s tax returns may already be signed, sealed and delivered, but April 20 is the day the average American woman will finally finish earning her 2009 salary — at least, the one she would have received if she were a man. That’s because U.S. women still earned only 77 cents on the male dollar in 2008, according to the latest census statistics. (That number drops to 68% for African-American women and 58% for Latinas.) To highlight the need for change, since 1996 the National Committee on Pay Equity, an advocacy-group umbrella organization, has marked April 20 as Equal Pay Day. There are some signs of progress: the first bill Barack Obama signed into law as President targeted the U.S. pay gap, and the Senate is considering a bill that is meant to address underlying discrimination. But the question remains: Why has it taken so long? Nearly half a century after it became illegal to pay women less on the basis of their sex, why do American women still earn less than men?

The answer depends on whom you ask — and so does the size of the gap. Some say 77% is overly grim. One reason: it doesn’t account for individual differences between workers. Once you control for factors like education and experience, notes Francine Blau — who, along with fellow Cornell economist Lawrence Kahn, published a study on the 1998 wage gap — women’s earnings rise to 81% of men’s. Factor in occupation, industry and whether they belong to a union, and they jump to 91%. That’s partly because women tend to cluster in lower-paying fields. The most-educated swath of women, for example, gravitates toward the teaching and nursing fields. Men with comparable education become business executives, scientists, doctors and lawyers — jobs that pay significantly more.(Read about a new wave of women in Europe’s boardrooms.)

Still, workers don’t choose their industry in a vacuum. “Why do you think [male-dominated industries] are sex-segregated?” says Terry O’Neill, president of the National Organization for Women. “Very often women aren’t welcome there.” Real or perceived, discrimination in certain sectors could discourage women from seeking employment there. A dearth of role models might, in turn, influence the next generation of girls to gravitate toward lower-paying fields, creating an unfortunate cycle.

But industry doesn’t tell the whole story. Women earned less than men in all 20 industries and 25 occupation groups surveyed by the Census Bureau in 2007 — even in fields in which their numbers are overwhelming. Female secretaries, for instance, earn just 83.4% as much as male ones. And those who pick male-dominated fields earn less than men too: female truck drivers, for instance, earn just 76.5% of the weekly pay of their male counterparts. Perhaps the most compelling — and potentially damning — data of all to suggest that gender has an influence comes from a 2008 study in which University of Chicago sociologist Kristen Schilt and NYU economist Matthew Wiswall examined the wage trajectories of people who underwent a sex change. Their results: even when controlling for factors like education, men who transitioned to women earned, on average, 32% less after the surgery. Women who became men, on the other hand, earned 1.5% more.

Skeptics who deem the 77% estimate too optimistic also note that the figure only counts women working full-time (35 hours a week or more, for the full year) and doesn’t account for the fact that women are far more likely to take time off to start a family or work part-time while rearing one. Over a period of 15 years, according to a 2004 study by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR), a full 52% of women in the prime earning age range of 26 to 59 go through at least one full calendar year earning nothing at all, compared with just 16% of men. Those choices make a difference: over that span, female workers earn just 38% of what men make — making the wage gap twice as large as the census figure. (And despite the earnings premium that comes with greater education, women with bachelor’s degrees earn less over 15 years than men with a high school diploma or less, according to the IWPR study.)(Read 1982 cover story “How Long Till Equality?”)

Yet no matter how you interpret the numbers, there are a few stubborn percentage points that can’t be explained away. Economists and advocates alike speculate that these are the products of slippery factors like discrimination — conscious or not. A 2000 study, for instance, famously found that after symphony orchestras introduced blind auditions, requiring musicians to perform behind a screen, women became more likely to get the gig. “I think discrimination has declined,” says Cornell’s Blau. “But I’m not yet seeing or believing that it’s been completely eliminated.”

Ensuring an end to discrimination would benefit more than just women, as advocates who resist the characterization of equal pay as a zero-sum game are quick to point out. When Iowa instituted wage adjustments to combat pay discrimination, men accounted for 41% of the beneficiaries. And considering that nearly 40% of American mothers are the primary breadwinner in their households, America’s children would benefit as well. Women’s wages have increased just half a penny on the dollar for the past four decades. How much longer can it possibly take for equality to arrive?

(via afro-dominicano)

theatlantic:

In Focus: International Women’s Day 2013

Today is International Women’s Day, a day set aside to celebrate women and their economic, political, and social achievements around the world. It is also a time to focus on places and situations where women’s rights, equality, health, and safety still have a long way to go. Collected below are images of women around the world — powerful and poor, young and old — on International Women’s Day.

Read more. [Images: Getty, AP, Reuters]

(via afro-dominicano)

stuffmomnevertoldyou:

Happy Women’s History Month!

Who was Rosie the Riveter?

In 1942, when she was 17, Geraldine Hoff took a job as a metal presser at a factory near her home in Inkster, Mich., near Detroit, to aid the war effort, Mrs. Gregg said. One day, a United Press photographer came in to shoot images of working women.

The resulting poster, designed by the graphic artist J.Howard Miller, was used in a Westinghouse Company campaign to deter strikes and absenteeism. It was not widely seen until the early 1980s, when it was embraced by feminists.

I have a pretty awesome job, but sometimes I’m indescribably jealous of SMNTY’s.